Monthly Archive for October, 2007

Cuba and the US: A Historical Relationship

Sugar cane has played a prominent historical role in US - Cuba relations

Sugar cane has played a prominent historical role in US – Cuba relations photo by Isaac Holeman.


If you’ve read my recent posts on Cuba, some of you might think I’ve been “going easy” on Cuba, that I always give this politically, ideologically charged nation the benefit of the doubt. I do not. I am, however, very intent that social critique be productive. It’s worse than useless to harangue Cuba (or anything) without a specific attention to the underlying structures and trajectories that have shaped its characteristics and will determine whether, when, and how these characteristics change.

Many Cubans are quite close minded politically. Censorship happens. No one is being disappeared like in Guatemala, but the press sucks and ideological advertisements are ubiquitous. I want to write a few posts about this, but it is so important to first examine Cuba’s troubled relationship with the U.S.

The Castro led revolution that began in the 1950’s is the third of Cuba’s revolutions that the US has worked to undermine in order to protects its own economic-ideological interests. The first two times we were successful in exercising ownership over the “unruly” Cuban people. This time has been more complicated.

U.S. [economic] sanctions challenged Cuba precisely on the grounds that the leadership was best prepared to defend: the ideal of nation, free and soverign – a formulation with antecedents early in the nineteenth century and the defense of which the Cuban leadership claimed the historical mandate to uphold. U.S. policy challenged the Cuban revolution at its most credible point and the most defensible position. Sanctions were perceived as one more maneuver to exact Cuban acquiescence to U.S. hegemony, another attempt to remove a government in Cuba dedicated to the defense of patria (homeland & heritage), one more way to punish the people of Cuba for having dared to aspire to national sovereignty…

Sanctions also contributed to reduce space for dialogue and debate inside Cuba. If indeed the survival of the nation was at stake, what mattered most was unanimity of purpose and an unyielding course of action, neither of which admitted easily internal discord and disagreement…

U.S. pressure could not but have acted to impede the process of political change inside Cuba. The Cuban willingness to pursue reforms – and the signals were mixed – could not have easily occurred in an environment in which the central preoccupation of national leadership was framed in terms of national security (remind anyone of executive abuses of civil liberties in the name of the war on terror?). On the other hand, it is possible to contemplate that these developments too were a desired outcome, for the U.S. did not seek a government reformed but a government removed.”

Perhaps the human rights advocate Miriam Leiva put it best “The irony of the situation is this: extremism in Miami (epicenter of the anti- Cuban Socialism lobby) and extremism in the White House ultimately serve to fuel extremism in Havana.” All quotes from Cuba: Between Reform and Revolution, 3rd edition, pages 316, 317, and 329.

Bear Necessities: Little girls have fun and make do

Two Girls and their Water Balloons? by Isaac Holeman.


I recently read a short passage about Cuban culture that included the statement “la necesidad ha sido nuestra maestra, el orgullo nacional nuestro consejero / necessity has been our teacher, national pride our advisor.” Though perhaps surprising in a country so marked by political rhetoric and ideology, pragmatism abounds here. Pragmatism and poverty go hand in hand. I once heard someone say that the inhumanity of poverty isn’t about not being able to choose to do this or purchase that, it’s in the impossible choices that you are forced to make. Deciding which of 3 children will get the 2 bed nets that can prevent malaria, or whether to give the small serving of food to the man who works or the daughter who deserves it too. I’m reminded of that often in Cuba.

In Cuba, the impossible decisions tend to be made on a societal level (via the state), like it or not. Some areas have been fortified by the government to support tourists – they are absolutely lavish but they bring a huge amount of wealth to the country. Areas that are not for tourists are poor. The government is unwilling release it’s hold on the economy and bring in more international wealth in the form of investment because they fear that if they loose the economy they will loose their political independence as well (a very reasonable suspicion given the state of business as usual in the rest of Latin America).

If the state isn’t helping provide it, most Cubans can’t afford it, but the government does invest in its people where it can. At least the investments are mainly structured according to a persuasion that the people themselves – all of them – are the greatest asset of the society (unlike the US, arguably). For example, food is important for individuals (more than subsidized coal energy, or flying to Mars), and so every person gets a ration of 3 weeks worth of food each month to supplement what they earn at work (which is probably almost nothing). There are also huge strategic investments in areas like education (everyone goes, it’s free through university but with mandatory work-study), and health care, which relies on low costs achieved by excellent preventative care. A good example of smart preventative care is promoting condom use as a second line of defense after abstinence. Rather than ignoring the research and letting condom provision and education be a victim of the political pendulum, the sole regime in Cuba is a strong supporter of condom use.

This brings me to the two cute girls in the picture. I watched them play with water balloons from the corner of my eye while I read my book in a park in Old Habana. They were filling them up, giggling, throwing them up and catching them, tossing them to one another, and sometimes double-bagging them so that they wouldn’t break. They were having so much fun; I was too. It was a lot like in the US, except that these were relatively normal looking Cuban girls, so they probably didn’t have money to spend on an unnecessary commodity like water balloons. Their water balloons were condoms. They probably got them from an older sibling, who can get them for free at school. Laughter is occasionally the very best medicine. Also, innocence is sometimes the best pragmatism.

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